Fauna auxiliar, capítulo 5: Abejas cardadoras (Anthidium)

Existen muchos tipos de abejas solitarias y de hecho, la mayor parte de especies de abejas no forman colmenas como lo harían las melíferas. En lugar de eso, cada hembra es fértil y cuida de su descendencia elaborando diferentes tipos de nidos, desde cámaras bajo tierra, hasta galerías en troncos.Quizá uno de los generos más comunes sea Anthidium (en el vídeo probablemente Anthidium florentinum).

 

Este género de abejas elabora sus nidos con fibras algodonosas vegetales y resinas recogidas principalmente de coníferas.
Las hembras de A. florentinum tejen sus nidos empleando fibras obtenidas de raspar con sus mandíbulas tallos o el envés de las hojas de algunas plantas, es fácil verlas obtener esta “pelusa” de las hojas de los nispereros, o de las acículas de los pinos.
No son gregarias, las abejas crían individualmente y para ello suelen elegir nidos abandonados de abejas carpinteras, orificios de xilófagos como la carcoma, o en el caso del vídeo que mostramos a continuación, un “hotel” de insectos imitando precisamente este tipo de oquedades. La abeja criará a su descendencia en estos nidos forrados del “algodón” recolectado, empleando el polen de multitud de flores como alimento para sus larvas.  Se la puede ver compartiendo espacio con otras abejas y avispas solitarias, en esta ocasión con Rhynchium oculatum.
tejiendo nido:
sellando nido con resina:

Para atraer estos beneficiosos polinizadores a nuestros huertos y jardines sólo es necesario aportarles flores y lugares donde criar, además de un entorno libre de pesticidas químicos.Como todas las abejas, su población está viéndose alarmantemente reducida a causa del uso de insecticidas como los neonicotinoides*

*neonicotinoides, información:
“Existe una creciente evidencia de que el uso preventivo generalizado de los neonicotinoides tiene graves efectos negativos sobre los organismos no objetivo que proporcionan servicios en los ecosistemas, incluyendo la polinización y el control natural de plagas.”
“altas concentraciones de un insecticida neonicotinoide, el imidacloprid, están asociadas con un declive de población en aves insectívoras.”
“A causa de su función y su naturaleza intrínseca, los insecticidas son el grupo de plaguicidas que supone el riesgo más directo para los polinizadores.”

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