Construye tu primer “hotel de insectos”

Un “hotel de insectos” es en realidad un tipo de caja nido que se instala con el objetivo de dar cobijo a multitud de insectos beneficiosos, principalmente polinizadores y controladores de plagas. Entre sus habitantes más habituales están las abejas y avispas solitarias (no son agresivas ni peligrosas), mariquitas, crisopas y otros aliados que cumplen una importante labor en nuestros huertos y jardines. Ellos son los responsables de polinizar las flores que darán lugar al alimento del que dependemos, además, muchas especies son también controladoras de plagas como orugas o pulgones.

Todos podemos ayudar a las abejas

El uso continuado y desproporcionado de pesticidas tóxicos junto con la destrucción de hábitats han ocasionado un declive mundial de polinizadores, siendo las abejas las más perjudicadas, muchas han desaparecido y otras están en grave peligro. De las más de 20.000 especies de abejas que existen la mayoría son solitarias, y anidan en galerías subterráneas, troncos, nidos abandonados de otras especies, orificios de xilófagos, conchas, etc… nuestro objetivo es reproducir esos lugares para que prosperen en zonas donde no podrían hacerlo de otra forma.
A continuación os mostramos una forma muy fácil pero efectiva de construir uno de estos hoteles. Hemos diseñado este modelo para que sean los niños quienes lo construyan, en casa, en el colegio… siempre con la supervisión de un adulto, que será quien haga los cortes con sierra. El propósito principal es ayudar a polinizadores como las abejas solitarias de una forma simple pero eficaz, queremos transformar jardines y huertos en reservas donde estos imprescindibles animales puedan reproducirse de forma segura.

 

Materiales

 

Diversos palos y cañas de varios grosores, pequeños tronquitos de unos 5/7 cm de diámetro (podas), cordel y una botella de agua usada.

Construcción

Cortamos los palos y cañas en segmentos de 20 centímetros (esta parte la debe realizar un adulto)
Cañas finas
Cañas más gruesas (sobre un centímetro de diámetro interno)

Palos con interior esponjoso, fácil de perforar por abejas carpinteras.

Pequeños troncos que perforamos con una broca de unos 5 mm
Agrupamos unas cuantas de cada alrededor de uno de los troncos:
Atamos bien con el cordel el fardo para que quede compacto (podemos ayudarnos poniendo unas bridas o alambre fino antes)

 

Recortamos una botella, quitándole cuello y fondo, y recortándo el cilindro resultante de forma transversal.

 

Hacemos dos orificios o una raja por el lado opuesto al corte transversal que nos servirá para pasar el cordel que dejamos a modo de asa en el fardo atado:

 

 

Instalación

La botella protegerá nuestro “hotel” y mantendrá a los polinizadores secos en su interior.
Lo podemos instalar en el jardín, en el huerto, en el monte, o en cualquier lugar que tenga vegetación próxima.  Lo ideal es colgarlo algo separado del suelo, para que no acudan hormigas o curioseen mascotas como gatos, pero al mismo tiempo teniendo en cuenta la altura de los niños y que éstos puedan observar las tareas de los insectos. En zonas frías evitar orientación norte, en zonas cálidas que esté algo sombreada.

 

Cuantas más diversidad de plantas con flor tengamos mejor, incluidas malas hierbas, que de malas suelen tener muy poco.
El de la foto está colgado en un “ginjoler” o azufaifo (Ziziphus jujuba), junto al huerto, aunque pueden estar a varias decenas de metros de la vegetación más próxima y ser ocupados igualmente.

 

 

 

 

Mandadnos fotos de los hoteles terminados una vez instalados en vuestro huerto, jardín o terraza y las publicaremos en este mismo post con el nombre del artista 😉

www.lagranjadebitxos.com

 

 

 

Guillermo García-Saúco Sánchez nos propone una versión similar pero con bote de fabada 🙂 el interior está relleno con ramas huecas de saúco y bambú.

Miguel Ángel nos envía su versión desde la huerta de La Ribera, en Valencia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


45 replies on “Construye tu primer “hotel de insectos”

  • Sara Arroyo

    Genial idea y muy bien explicado!
    Yo tengo un hotel hecho con cañas y bambú. Mi duda es qué hacer con los palos ya utilizados por las abejas, ha funcionado a la perfección y no sé si son capaces de reutilizarlos las mismas abejas o tengo que sustituirlos por palos “vírgenes”. Me gustaría seguir ayudando a las abejas y espero que podáis resolverme la duda.
    Muchas gracias, un saludo!

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